Distributed Wind and PV in Denmark and Germany

This report describes the current regulations in Denmark and Germany for land use and
planning and siting of RE facilities, especially distributed onshore wind and free-field PV
systems. In the first section, the status of both onshore wind power and PV in both countries
is presented. Afterwards, the planning and siting processes as well as the approval
processes for onshore wind farms and freefield PV systems are explained. In this context,
it is important to note that, while Denmark is ruled by country-level regulation, in Germany
the regulations for land use differ across the federal states, which have the power to issue
own rules. The most important differences are briefly presented in this report. Afterwards, the
public participation processes are discussed. Finally, lessons learned for China based on the
Danish and German experiences with planning and siting onshore wind power plants and freefield
PV systems are suggested.